Archive for the ‘Self Presentation’ Category
It’s time to run down some articles that are curious, but not substantial enough to justify a full blog post. Once again, we have kept a few pearls in our virtual filing cabinet, and have combined them here for your curiosity and possibly entertainment. This is one of those combination posts that will offer you conversation topics and also, this time only, give you hope for the future when it comes to reading. So, if you want more water-cooler conversation fodder or more material that cements your reputation for knowing very weird trivia, get ready to take notes.
Phubbing makes you unhappy (so knock it off already!)
Phubbing is the practice of “snubbing your partner in favor of your phone” and you add an extra ‘p’ to the word (Pphubbing) if the partner involved is actually your romantic partner. This is the first time we’ve heard of this word so we’re guessing the 2012 advertising campaign for which it was coined wasn’t really that successful. But we all know when we’re doing it, and when we are having it done to us. In the research study cited at the bottom of this post, they found that Pphubbing was a particular problem for those with anxious attachment styles, and that pphubbing related to depression through relationship satisfaction and even life satisfaction. So. It hurts them and makes you feel bad. Put the phone done and make some eye contact. Unless, of course, that message is very important and you are really, really busy…
FOMO (Oh no!)
While we know it is unlikely, you may have forgotten our post on FOMO—“fear of missing out”. FOMO is “the uneasy and sometimes all-consuming feeling that you’re missing out — that your peers are doing, in the know about, or in possession of more or something better than you”. Apparently it hits young people harder than it does older folks. There’s a Texas A&M University authored suggestion for combatting FOMO over at Science Daily.
Will this finally end blonde jokes?
Probably not, but if you missed the extensive media coverage about blonde women having higher IQs than non-blonde’s—here is a link to the original article asking the question, Are Blondes Really Dumb? from the open access journal Economics Bulletin. We do want to comment that the IQ scores in the article are not statistically significant differences. Actually, Vox recently took this article to task and has a pretty heated critique on the research. But the headline is inflammatory, so it got wide attention.
People still read for pleasure!
A new paper has just been released by the Brookings Institution analyzing more than 400,000 digitally recorded stories to see what holds our attention in 2016. If you’d rather look at a summary of the report, Poynter has an exceptionally nice one. In brief, to hold our attention an article doesn’t have to be short; readers are not indiscriminately drawn to images or photos; and doing your research thoroughly pays off. It’s a wonderful counterpoint to the negative predictions we often hear about the future of reading for pleasure.
Roberts, J., & David, M. (2016). My life has become a major distraction from my cell phone: Partner phubbing and relationship satisfaction among romantic partners. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 134-141 DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.058
If a man is a good storyteller, we tend to see him as more attractive and as having higher status. That is, if we are looking for a long-term relationship partner. Unfortunately, it does not work for women storytellers with male audiences nor for those looking for a short-term relationship. This is the first series of studies examining the impact of storytelling ability on attracting relationships (if you are a man). Confusing?
Rather than describing the studies done (there were three of them) we are going to focus on the results (which were consistent across all three studies) and (we think) have implications for the courtroom.
Storytelling ability resulted in women thinking the male storyteller was a more attractive prospect for a long-term relationships.
Women also thought men who were good storytellers had higher perceived social status. (This was again not the case for men listening to women tell stories.)
The authors explain their results using evolutionary theory (from a psychological perspective) and say that heterosexual women are drawn to good (male) storytellers because those men may be more efficient in obtaining resources and influencing others. We kid you not—they wrote this. If you have been a reader of this blog for long, you know we do not often agree with evolutionary psychologists, but find they are often amusing. Thus, instead of focusing on women’s desire to find a good man to provide for her (ahem) we will look at this from the perspective of litigation advocacy.
We’ve written about Melanie Green’s work on narrative transportation before and like to apply the idea to litigation advocacy. The storytelling model is familiar to us all and perhaps the most popular way to tell a story effectively in the courtroom. In 2000, she published a scale to measure the degree to which listeners were “transported” by a good story. While that scale has not become popular, we think it is a good structure to assess the degree to which jurors are going to be willing to listen to your case narrative. Here is a table from that 2000 article listing a number of questions from the Transportation Scale:
You can likely see how some of these questions could be fruitful in voir dire and jury selection. You want to see who will listen and who will consider their dinner plans and how to cut deliberations short to make dinner on time.
If you have jurors who like a good story and you tell a good story—you are likely to have those jurors focused and intent on the evidence.
But—even if you’re male—don’t count on women finding you more attractive as a result. Unless you are an evolutionary psychologist. Yet we know, based on past research, being seen as attractive is likely to help you be successful at most social endeavors.
Telling a good story has been an attention grabber throughout the ages. And if being a good storyteller enhances your persuasiveness even a little, that’s a good advantage to enjoy while in court.
DONAHUE, J., & GREEN, M. (2016). A good story: Men’s storytelling ability affects their attractiveness and perceived status. Personal Relationships DOI: 10.1111/pere.12120
We’ve written a lot about those with what are called the “dark triad” of personality characteristics. Narcissists. Psychopaths. Machiavellians. These are not people we recommend doing business with—either personally or professionally. Their only interest is self-interest. So this is an interesting study as it shares a possible way to inoculate yourself against these untrustworthy folks who can be (for brief periods of time) quite persuasive and charming.
Here is how the authors of today’s article describe those with dark triad personality characteristics:
They “are callous and interpersonally exploitative. [snip] Psychopathy is related to an antisocial lifestyle, Machiavellianism to calculated manipulation and being goal-oriented, and narcissism to grandiosity and self-adoration.”
Or as my kids would say, “they will cut you”. In short, they are not nice people and cannot be trusted. The authors note that there is ample evidence of exploitative behavior from these “dark personalities” in face-to-face interactions but that no one has yet explored whether their negotiation skills will be preserved when forced to negotiate in a text-based (“computer-mediated”) environment (which would delete their interpersonal presence and non-verbal behavior).
To cut to the chase, what the researchers found was that when you take away the impact of interpersonal presence—dark triad personalities are much less persuasive in text and they are much less threatening to those intimidated by interacting with them face-to-face.
From a litigation advocacy perspective, it is unlikely you will be able to conduct actual negotiations via text. However, if you end up in mediation, remember that much of the bluster of the machiavellian, the manipulation of the psychopath, and the preening behavior of the narcissist will be eliminated when they are interacting with you not in person, but through the mediator.
Make yourself think concretely—not “what does that really mean?” but, “what was offered?”.
If you find yourself feeling threatened or charmed, remind yourself that the person embodying the dark triad is not in the room; give yourself time to step back and consider how to respond.
The reality of the dark triad character is that there is a large display of style but not much substance. When you distance yourself from their interpersonal impact (by texting, memorandum, or an interacting through an intermediary) they simply become bad people, but not particularly productive, persuasive or threatening people at that.
And when you have to interact in person, say in the courtroom—focus on being as likable, sincere, and straightforward as you can and trust that the jury will see your genuineness. The contrast will be refreshing for them. You are there to do a job for your client and that means advocating for them and not focusing on the malevolence of your opponent.
Crossley, L., Woodworth, M., Black, P., & Hare, R. (2016). The dark side of negotiation: Examining the outcomes of face-to-face and computer-mediated negotiations among dark personalities Personality and Individual Differences, 91, 47-51 DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.11.052
Much like the chocolate cake staring at you from the dessert tray in that fine restaurant, the narcissist initially seems irresistible—but like the cake, when you indulge in a relationship with the narcissist, you will probably end up sick to your stomach. It’s called the Chocolate Cake Model of narcissism. And it’s how today’s researchers begin their article on leaders who are narcissists:
“The first bite of chocolate cake is usually rich in flavor and texture, and extremely gratifying. After a while, however, the richness of the flavor makes one feel increasingly nauseous. Being led by a narcissist could be a similar experience: Narcissists might initially be perceived as effective leaders, but these positive perceptions may decrease over time.”
When I was first studying personality disorders in graduate school, a professor discussed how in social interactions narcissists are often delightful for the first couple of dates, and rapidly become very burdensome.
Today’s researchers did two separate studies, one using a group of students who were strangers to each other (first semester, first year students in their first week at a university) and a second using a group of students who knew or had information about each other (third and fourth year students psychology majors at a university) to study the relationship between narcissism and leadership.
Yes, there could be an age component to the results, but hey—not everyone does much growing up during college. Arguably, there is a range…
Essentially, in each group, the student-participants completed measures of narcissism, leadership (using a measure described in this article) and transformational leadership (using a modified version of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire) at the very first meeting of a 12 week course. Then during the next 12 weeks each group was assigned weekly tasks to complete for points in a class competition. After completion of the weekly tasks, individual participants completed the leadership and transformational leadership questionnaires.
What they found will likely not come as much of a surprise if you have ever encountered a narcissist:
In the first experiment (where the student-participants did not know each other), initially the participants who were higher in narcissism were seen as good leaders. But that perception dissipated over time (the experiment ran for an entire semester).
In the second experiment, (with a group of students who were familiar with each other from majoring in psychology at the same school), those who measured higher in narcissism were not seen as good leaders initially but by the end of the semester their leadership capability was viewed negatively.
In other words, to strangers the narcissist was charming and thought to have strong leadership skills. Over time though, the narcissist was unable to maintain the pretense and stopped doing the things that initially curried favor with the group and was seen increasingly negatively over the course of the semester. Narcissists, say the researchers, always emerge as leaders in groups where they are unknown but over time, their leadership skills are seen to be lacking and they become increasingly unpopular.
When we are hired to work on a case, one of the early conversations includes a discussion of the style and manner of the attorneys, parties, and witnesses for both sides. A narcissistic witness often has a good bit of charm and initially comes across well. Over time, though, a skilled examiner can feed them enough rope for them to hang themselves on their own pride and arrogance.
What started out feeling bold and engaging devolves into shallow obnoxiousness (consider the current Presidential primaries for a case in point). Narcissists often love the limelight, but don’t realize when they have gone too far. A long trial (if it is an attorney or corporate rep) or a long examination (for the problematic witness) can grow old to jurors before it’s over.
Ong CW, Roberts R, Arthur CA, Woodman T, & Akehurst S (2016). The Leader Ship Is Sinking: A Temporal Investigation of Narcissistic Leadership. Journal of Personality, 84 (2), 237-47 PMID: 25487857
If you have not guessed by the title, it’s another installment of ‘things you want to know’. As we go through many articles to blog about, we discard many, keep a few, and collect tidbits we don’t want to expend an entire post on but also don’t want to toss. That is how you are gifted with these tidbits—interesting things you want (maybe) to know. Think of it as a jambalaya where you creatively incorporate leftovers from the refrigerator.
What do you know about science?
We’ve blogged before about the disturbing lack of knowledge we see in our mock jurors when it comes to science and technology. A new examination suggests that adults in the US are improving in science knowledge in over the past two decades. But (naturally) there is a catch. The study of American adults knowledge on general science is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and summarized here with correct answers to the questions courtesy of the Business Insider. Apparently, getting correct answers on the science quiz depends on how the question is worded. Let that be a lesson to you as you craft your next case narrative.
Yes, there are occasions when women like to be sexually objectified
In December 2014, we blogged about a video of a woman being harassed and whistled at that was presented as “research” and getting a lot of attention but was not particularly well done when looked at more closely by observers. So when we saw this article (citation at the bottom of the post), we thought of that video and the idea that for some reason, some men think that “cat-calling” a woman they do not know is going to be a good thing. These researchers note the conflicting literature in this area: on one hand there are articles that say women do not like being sexually objectified, but on the other hand, women spend a lot time of appearance (according to these researchers) that is meant to “enhance their sexual appeal”. Naturally, these academics wanted to clear this up for all of us. What they found was that when women were in a committed relationship, they enjoyed a little objectification as long as it was from the person to whom they were committed. From other people? Not so much. Perhaps the cat-calling video makers should revisit those streets and hand out this article to all those cat-callers. We are quite sure that would stop the behavior altogether.
Who earns less money and is it all in your genes?
New research from the University of Exeter says if you are a short man or an overweight women—you earn less than those who are taller or slimmer. Is it due to discrimination? Perhaps, but the researchers looked at genetic data from almost 120,000 people between 40 and 70 years of age. Specifically, they examined “400 genetic variants” associated with height and “70 genetic variants” associated with body mass index (BMI). They compared these genetic variants (along with the actual height and weight of the people involved) to participant-provided information on their living situations and income. They found that shorter men and heavier women earned less than their taller and slimmer peers—and that was regardless of all other factors. The study is open-access and published in the British Medical Journal.
Are you green with Facebook envy or red with Twitter rage?
You’ve likely seen the studies that say spending a lot of time on Facebook decreases your overall well-being. A new article in Scientific American looks at some of the literature and says that when you react to Facebook posts, it is often with envy (especially if you read but do not comment or post yourself). The authors recommend that if you are going to spend time on Facebook, you do so by actively commenting and posting which will allegedly reduce your experience of Facebook envy.
After solving Facebook issues, the writers move on to Twitter (which we’ve also blogged about) and say that Twitter users who rant online often see it as cathartic even though those who read their angry tweets may simply see them as “Twitter ragers”—so common there are even self-help lists for surviving the attack of the ragers. The writers also comment that Twitter ragers are also likely to be angry and aggressive offline as well. That doesn’t really come as a surprise to us at all.
Do you have a unibrow, gray hair or a bushy beard?
You can rest easier knowing it is all in your genes and product developers (as well as forensic scientists) are paying very, very close attention. While many genes are being discovered, the genes for the rate at which your hair goes gray, how bushy your beard or eyebrows are, or whether your eyebrows form a unibrow—have only just now been discovered. Apparently, forensic scientists want to use this information to figure out how to create images of criminal suspects when all they have is the suspect’s DNA. Product developers are expected to use the genetic information to aid in new product development. And, believe it or not, hair growth patterns are related to some diseases so it is believed medical researchers can learn from this seemingly frivolous study as well.
Meltzer, AL McNulty, JK Maner, JK (2016) Women like being valued for sex, as long as it is by a committed partner. Archives of Sexual Behavior.