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Archive for the ‘Self Presentation’ Category

Jamail depo tx styleSometimes these tidbit posts come around more often than usual—typically it happens when we’ve read a lot that is just not suited for an entire blog post but it made us laugh out loud or peaked our curiosity. Here for you are the last few things that made us look again or laugh uncomfortably.

Millennials are doing job search duties for their parents too

We hear so much bad press on the Millennials but here’s a really sweet article that shows how Millennials are helping out their parents too. The Atlantic has an article on what they describe as “employed and financially independent Millennials who are instead helping their parents find a job”. They are not only teaching their parents the basics of finding a job in 2016 but also using their social media skills and networking skills to find out who might be hiring in their parent’s professional areas of interest. It’s an uplifting and positive take on a generation currently maligned as freeloaders—plus there are some good resources embedded in the article as Millennials talk about what they have done to help Mom or Dad.

Political extremists are less susceptible to the anchoring bias

So here’s a point for the political extremist. If you are a regular reader here you know we tend to de-select the political extremist as just too unpredictable to serve as a juror on most cases. Often, the extremist is characterized as unthinking and knee-jerk in decision-making with stereotypes and biases guiding their thinking. However, new research tells us that political extremists sometimes think carefully about their decisions and are quite confident in their judgments. Here’s the abstract for the article, a blog post by the first author, and a Huffington Post writeup. The complete reference is at the end of this post. It’s an interesting article but we still won’t be choosing them to sit on the vast majority of juries.

Those Joe Jamail deposition tapes are so 1990

It’s been years since we first saw the “Texas style” depositions by Joe Jamail on YouTube. If you have somehow missed watching this epic video, you owe it to yourself to give it a look. You’ll realize just how long it’s been when you see these courtroom transcripts posted by Keith Lee over on Associate’s Mind blog. It’s enough to make one wonder how court reporters maintain their decorum and it certainly says something about how times change. Both of the authors of this fine blog have testified many times as expert witnesses. And one memory stands out prominently in which two lawyers nearly began brawling in the middle of the deposition. It was a good time to have a psychologist and dispute resolution specialist in the room!

What’s the best way to deliver bad news?

When companies downsize (or “right-size”) there are always myriad recommendations on the best way to deliver bad news to those who lose their jobs due to layoffs. Now, new research tells us it isn’t so much what is said when you notify an employee about layoffs as how it is said. Researchers publishing in the Journal of Applied Psychology tell us that when employees are given the information in a way that seems fair to them—their reactions are much less negative. According to them, “fairness” includes process transparency and treating employees with respect. You can read a summary of this article over at Science Daily. and we found a full-text source here.

Brandt MJ, Evans AM, & Crawford JT (2015). The unthinking or confident extremist? Political extremists are more likely than moderates to reject experimenter-generated anchors. Psychological Science, 26 (2), 189-202 PMID: 25512050

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school lunches repulsiveIt’s time for another installment of strange tidbits we’ve gathered as we have read potential articles for blog posts. This week we have information on why you would stick something icky and repulsive into your mouth, online anonymity, bias against homosexuals, and what horrible things can happen should you choose to ‘unfriend’ that person on Facebook who really annoys you.

Disgusting and repulsive is what that is—tell me more!

The popularity of television shows like Fear Factor tells us that we humans are drawn to disgusting and repulsive things. Some researchers (Hsee and Ruan cited below) think our curiosity drives us to risk negative outcomes (much like Pandora). There is a thorough write-up on this article over at Scientific American that is worth your time to review—although it is likely a good idea to not eat while doing so.

You are likely not as anonymous online as you think

Now this is sort of scary. Many of us want to be anonymous online as we go about our daily business. But a new research study says they can identify who you are just by the way you browse the internet. Apparently, each of us creates a “unique digital behavioral signature” and “they” can know way too much about you based on how you wield that electronic mouse or touchpad. Within a half hour of monitoring you, the researchers say they can measure personality characteristics like “openness to new experiences, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism”. That’s pretty scary. The researchers appear to be very excited about this and appear to long to sell their strategies to online marketers. [I think these researchers should be denied tenure just on principle.]

How do we feel now about lesbian women and gay men?

There has been a cultural shift underway in the US in attitudes toward homosexuals. Some have wondered if there really is a change underway or if people just feel pressured to express more support for gay men and lesbian women. Now there is research published in a new open access journal called Collabra that says this societal change really has occurred. A team of researchers found that implicit or unconscious bias against lesbians and gays was down 13% in 2013 when compared to 2006. Nearly all demographic groups showed decreases in bias against homosexuals over that 7 year period which suggests the change is not just politically correct but actually real.

You may want to consider alternatives to “unfriending” on Facebook once you read this

Imagine you live in a “sleepy mountain town” with your young spouse and infant child. Then imagine you have been murdered (although your child survived) and no one can figure out who did it because, “everyone” liked you. You don’t really have to imagine since you can read the story of what happened to a young couple after they ‘unfriended’ a woman on Facebook. It’s a sadly bizarre tale of catfishing and loneliness and perhaps some psychopathy. Here’s a quote from the assistant district attorney’s opening statement to the jury:

“This is going to be the stupidest thing you’ve ever heard. This is going to be the craziest thing you’ve ever heard. There is nothing in your lives or background that has prepared you to understand the Potter family.”

And to that we say, “Amen”. And we would like also to mention you can ‘unfollow’ rather than ‘unfriend’ to get them out of your timeline but not incite homicidal rage.

Hsee CK, & Ruan B (2016). The Pandora Effect: The Power and Peril of Curiosity. Psychological Science, 27 (5), 659-66 PMID: 27000178

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liar with pinocchio shadowHere is some new research that says while we cannot identify liars through our intuition — there are ways we can increase our ability to identify liars. Most of you know that successful lie detection is not something at which the majority of us are skilled. New research suggests a way to improve deception detection (which we’ve blogged about frequently) and it makes intuitive sense.

Someone should tell our mock jurors who see themselves as expert deception detectors about this work! (See their allegations of lying based on a few minutes of witness deposition excerpts here.)

The researcher, Chris Street, says our ability to detect deception is poor because we are trying to juggle multiple cues we believe indicate deception. Our focus is so scattered that we are not usually successful. Instead, we should perhaps focus on a single cue—such as whether or not the person is obviously thinking hard—as a sign of deception. This is not a matter of improving our access to intuition or our “implicit knowledge” that someone is lying as described in past research. These researchers describe it this way:

“Indirect lie detection does not access implicit knowledge, but simply focuses the perceiver on more useful cues.”

It is not that deep down inside we have the ability to intuit lies if we would just free our intuition—it is simply that we’ve been trying to process too many different small signs (or cues) of deception and diluting our ability to zero in on behaviors associated with deception. The researchers call this an indirect lie detection approach.

In an indirect lie detection approach, you don’t look for signs of deception. Instead you look for behaviors known to be associated with lying. For example, the researchers point to “appears to be thinking hard” or “appears tense” as two behaviors associated with lying. To practice indirect lie detection then, you focus on a “single diagnostic cue” such as “thinking hard” as you appraise a speaker for either accuracy or deception.

In multiple studies, the authors found that when observers focused on the single deception clue of “thinking hard”, their accuracy in deception detection increased.

The researchers say that whether there truly is an “implicit awareness” of deception should be left for others to explore. Instead, we can focus on concrete and behavioral indicators and have improved accuracy. Their findings lead them to suggest that researchers focus on the single most important diagnostic cue and to simply ignore those that are less powerful or not at all indicative of deception. According to the researchers, attempting to apply multiple “signs of deception” as you listen to someone will result in lower levels of accuracy than will watching for one specific diagnostic cue.

We have talked about similar recommendations here before, and think the best way to improve your accuracy is to watch a single strong indicator of whatever behavior you are trying to assess (whether lies or some other behavior) in order to avoid confusion while trying to juggle multiple (and sometimes conflicting) cues to the behavior you are assessing.

Street CN, & Richardson DC (2015). The focal account: Indirect lie detection need not access unconscious, implicit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied, 21 (4), 342-55 PMID: 26301728

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The Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS) 

Wednesday, June 15, 2016
posted by Rita Handrich

maladaptive daydreaming scaleWe posted earlier this week about the new concept of “maladaptive daydreaming” and those researchers published a second article on an actual 14-item scale to assess whether a specific individual is a maladaptive daydreamer. Since it’s a strange area that may end up in the courtroom—we thought we’d share information and some of the items on the scale with you.

As a reminder, maladaptive daydreaming was defined by Eli Somer (in 2002) as “extensive fantasy activity that replaces human interaction and/or interferes with academic, interpersonal or vocational functioning”. While there is a proliferation of self-help information on the internet, this scale has just been published and while not freely available (at this writing) on the internet it is at the journal website (behind a paywall—posted as supplemental material).

The measure was developed and tested on 447 subjects (340 self-identified maladaptive daydreamers and 107 controls who “daydreamed normally”) and was found to have good psychometric properties (highly reliable and valid) and to be an appropriate measure for assessing the presence of maladaptive dreamers in clinical research. The final scale contains 14 items that assess the following elements of maladaptive daydreaming: Quality (usually rich and very detailed), Control (is the person able to control the daydreaming?), Distress (does the daydreaming cause distress?), Benefits (what are the benefits associated with daydreaming?), and Functioning (is the person able to function?).

We know what you really want to see here are some of the questions in the measure, so we will not delay further. Here are 5 sample questions from the measure (with the element of maladaptive daydreaming the question measures identified).

How often are your current daydreams accompanied by physical activity such as pacing, swinging, or shaking your hands? (Element measured: Quality)

When a real world event has interrupted one of your daydreams, how strong was your need or urge to return to that daydream as soon as possible? (Element measured: Control)

If you go through a period of time when you are not able to daydream as much as usual due to real world obligations, how distressed are you by your inability to find time to daydream? (Element measured: Distress)

Some people love to daydream. While you are daydreaming, to what extent do you find it comforting and/or enjoyable? (Element measured: Benefit)

For some people, the experience of daydreaming interferes with their academic/occupational success or personal achievements. How much does your daydreaming interfere with your academic/occupational success? (Element measured: Function)

If you are not experiencing maladaptive daydreaming, it may be difficult to see these questions as documenting a real condition. And if this trait is part of a claimed condition that requires some kind of accommodation (we are talking to you, HR professional or employment litigator), the issue of how “real” it is, will become important to you very quickly. It is certainly something that would interfere with life function, and if it becomes a facet of a diminished capacity claim (falling short of a psychotic episode) it might be used to explain allegedly bad behavior.

Somer E, Lehrfeld J, Bigelsen J, & Jopp DS (2016). Development and validation of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS). Consciousness and Cognition, 39, 77-91 PMID: 26707384

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be-charismaticSometimes we find articles we want to blog about almost immediately and other times we go through a lot of reading to identify something appropriate for a post. But along the way we almost always have tidbits we thought intriguing, resonant of a past post or series of posts, esoteric, or just plain weird. When we pull together enough of them for a post of assorted “conversation starters”, you know we’ve been reading a lot more than we’re posting!

Calm down, you are not addicted to your smartphone! 

You simply have an anxious attachment style. The BPS Research Digest returns to a topic we’ve covered here before called nomophobia—which describes the anxiety experienced when we have no cell phone in our possession. They describe research completed in Hungary which says that everyone would experience anxiety over not having a cell phone—it is just expected in today’s society. The researchers say, that we should think of our relationship with our phones in terms of attachment theory. They suggest that anyone who has a fear of abandonment (an attachment issue) in their human relationships is likely going to be more anxious about being separated from their phone as well—it’s just an anxious attachment style. You were a worrier before, so you also worry about not having your phone. You feel better now, right?

When DNA implicates the innocent & Eye witness identification errors

In the event you missed them, Scientific American has had really good articles on the legal system recently. Don’t miss this article highlighting times when DNA is very, very wrong or this one on how level of certainty in eyewitnesses can improve the efficacy of police lineups. Both are worthy of your time to read.

How to sound charismatic

We’ve written about deep voices and how appealing they can be and now here is an article from the Atlantic dissecting how politicians vary their voice pitch and tone during speaking engagements in order to appeal to the widest audience possible. It’s disturbing.

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